Thursday, September 29, 2016

Wednesday, September 28, 2016

Fabian´s Birthday



Today we celebrated Fabian´s birthday, We sang hime the Happy Birthday song loudly and cheerfully.

God blees you with tons of happiness.

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Tuesday, September 27, 2016

Our Sense of Touch

Our skin acts as the protective barrier between our internal body systems and the outside world. Its ability to perceive touch sensations gives our brains a wealth of information about the environment around us, such as temperature, pain, and pressure. Without our sense of touch, it would be very hard to get around in this world! We wouldn't feel our feet hitting the floor when we walked, we wouldn't sense when something sharp cut us, and we wouldn't feel the warm sun on our skin. It is truly amazing how much information we receive about the world through our sense of touch, and although we still don't know all the ins and outs of how the skin perceives touch, what we do know is interesting.
Skin Anatomy
The skin is composed of several layers. The very top layer is the epidermis and is the layer of skin you can see. In Latin, the prefix "epi-" means "upon" or "over." So the epidermis is the layer upon the dermis (the dermis is the second layer of skin). Made of dead skin cells, the epidermis is waterproof and serves as a protective wrap for the underlying skin layers and the rest of the body. It contains melanin, which protects against the sun's harmful rays and also gives skin its color. When you are in the sun, the melanin builds up to increase its protective properties, which also causes the skin to darken. The epidermis also contains very sensitive cells called touch receptors that give the brain a variety of information about the environment the body is in.
The second layer of skin is the dermis. The dermis contains hair follicles, sweat glands, sebaceous (oil) glands, blood vessels, nerve endings, and a variety of touch receptors. Its primary function is to sustain and support the epidermis by diffusing nutrients to it and replacing the skin cells that are shed off the upper layer of the epidermis. New cells are formed at the junction between the dermis and epidermis, and they slowly push their way towards the surface of the skin so that they can replace the dead skin cells that are shed. Oil and sweat glands eliminate waste produced at the dermis level of the skin by opening their pores at the surface of the epidermis and releasing the waste.
The bottom layer is the subcutaneous tissue which is composed of fat and connective tissue. The layer of fat acts as an insulator and helps regulate body temperature. It also acts as a cushion to protect underlying tissue from damage when you bump into things. The connective tissue keeps the skin attached to the muscles and tendons underneath.

How Our Skin Works


Francia´s birthday

We celebrated Francia ´s birthday.

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Teeth

The teeth are the hardest substances in the human body. Besides being essential for chewing, the teeth play an important role in speech. Parts of the teeth include:



• Enamel: The hardest, white outer part of the tooth. Enamel is mostly made ofcalcium phosphate, a rock-hard mineral.

• Dentin: A layer underlying the enamel. Dentin is made of living cells, which secrete a hard mineral substance.

• Pulp: The softer, living inner structure of teeth. Blood vessels and nerves run through the pulp of the teeth.

• Cementum: A layer of connective tissue that binds the roots of the teeth firmly to the gums and jawbone.

• Periodontal ligament: Tissue that helps hold the teeth tightly against the jaw.
A normal adult mouth has 32 teeth, which (except for wisdom teeth) have erupted by about age 13:



• Incisors (8 total): The middlemost four teeth on the upper and lower jaws.

• Canines (4 total): The pointed teeth just outside the incisors.

• Premolars (8 total): Teeth between the canines and molars.

• Molars (8 total): Flat teeth in the rear of the mouth, best at grinding food.

• Wisdom teeth or third molars (4 total): These teeth erupt at around age 18, but are often surgically removed to prevent displacement of other teeth.



The crown of each tooth projects into the mouth. The root of each toothdescends below the gum line, into the jaw.

Teeth Conditions

  • Cavities (caries): Bacteria evade removal by brushing and saliva and damage the enamel and deeper structures of teeth. Most cavities occur on molars and premolars.
  • Tooth decay: A general name for disease of the teeth, including cavities and caries.
  • PeriodontitisInflammation of the deeper structures of the teeth (periodontal ligament, jawbone, and cementum). Poor oral hygiene is usually to blame.
  • GingivitisInflammation of the surface portion of the gums, around and between the crowns of the teeth. Plaque and tartar buildup can lead togingivitis.
  • Plaque: A sticky, colorless film made of bacteria and the substances they secrete. Plaque develops quickly on teeth after eating sugary food, but can be easily brushed off.
  • Tartar: If plaque is not removed, it mixes with minerals to become tartar, a harder substance. Tartar requires professional cleaning for removal.
  • Overbite: The upper teeth protrude significantly over the lower teeth.
  • Underbite: The lower teeth protrude significantly past the upper teeth.
  • Teeth grinding (bruxism): Stress,anxiety, or sleep disorders can cause teeth grinding, usually during sleep. A dull headache or sore jaw are symptoms.
  • Tooth sensitivity: When one or more teeth become sensitive to hot or cold, it may mean the dentin is exposed.

Tuesday, September 20, 2016

Ants

  • We learned about ants in Reading, here are some interesting facts about these tiny but strong insects:

  • There are more than 12,000 species of ants all over the world.
  • An ant can lift 20 times its own body weight. If a second grader was as strong as an ant, she would be able to pick up a car!
  • Some queen ants can live for many years and have millions of babies!
  • Ants don’t have ears. Ants "hear" by feeling vibrations in the ground through their feet.
  • When ants fight, it is usually to the death!
  • When foraging, ants leave a pheromone trail so that they know where they’ve been.
  • Queen ants have wings, which they shed when they start a new nest.
  • Ants don’t have lungs. Oxygen enters through tiny holes all over the body and carbon dioxide leaves through the same holes.
  • When the queen of the colony dies, the colony can only survive a few months. Queens are rarely replaced and the workers are not able to reproduce.
Although ants are frustrating when they get into your home or when you’re having a picnic, ants do help the environment. They are social insects, which means they live in large colonies or groups. Depending on the species, ant colonies can consist of millions of ants.
There are three kinds of ants in a colony: The queen, the female workers, and males. The queen and the males have wings, while the workers don’t have wings. The queen is the only ant that can lay eggs. The male ant’s job is to mate with future queen ants and they do not live very long afterwards. Once the queen grows to adulthood, she spends the rest of her life laying eggs! Depending on the species, a colony may have one queen or many queens.
Ant colonies also have soldier ants that protect the queen, defend the colony, gather or kill food, and attack enemy colonies in search for food and nesting space. If they defeat another ant colony, they take away eggs of the defeated ant colony. When the eggs hatch, the new ants become the "slave" ants for the colony. Some jobs of the colony include taking care of the eggs and babies, gathering food for the colony and building the anthills or mounds.
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Our Sense of Smell


Here are some interesting facts about our sense of smell. 

1. People can detect at least one trillion distinct scents. The nose can smell at least one trillion distinct scents. 





















2. Scent cells are renewed every 30 to 60 days. The sense of smell is the only cranial nerve — nerves that emerge from the brain and control bodily functions including eye movement, hearing, taste, and vision  that can regenerate.


3. You can smell fear and disgust. You can smell feelings of fear and disgust through sweat, and then you can experience the same emotions.

4. Smell is the oldest sense. Chemodetection — detecting chemicals related to smell or taste — is the most ancient sense.

5. Women have a better sense of smell than men. Women always are better at odor and smell identification than men. Women have a more developed orbital prefrontal region of the brain. It may have also evolved from an ability to discern the best possible mates, or to help women better bond with and understand newborns.

6. Age-related loss of smell is linked to race. African-Americans and Hispanics experience loss of smelling related to age earlier than Caucasians.

7. Each human has their own distinct odor. Like fingerprints, every person has their own distinct odor. The distinct odor you have comes from the same genes that determine tissue type.

Here´s the video we watched to review how our nose works:

How Our Body Works


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Renata´s Birthday



Today we celebrated Renata´s birthday.
May God bless you!

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Monday, September 19, 2016

Our Sense of Hearing

We are studying our senses. Last week we studied how our sense of hearing works.

Hearingauditory perception, or audition is the ability to perceive sound by detecting vibrations, changes in the pressure of the surrounding medium through time, through an organ such as the ear.

In humans and other vertebrates, hearing is performed primarily by the auditory systemmechanical waves, known as vibrations are detected by the ear and transduced into nerve impulses that are perceived by the brain (primarily in the (temporal lobe).
There are three main components of the human ear: the outer ear, the middle ear, and the inner ear.

Outer ear

The outer ear includes the pinna, the visible part of the ear, as well as the ear canal which terminates at the eardrum, also called the tympanic membrane. The pinna serves to focus sound waves through the ear canal toward the eardrum. Because of the asymmetrical character of the outer ear of most mammals, sound is filtered differently on its way into the ear depending on what vertical location it is coming from. This gives these animals the ability to localize sound vertically. The eardrum is an airtight membrane, and when sound waves arrive there, they cause it to vibrate following the wave form of the sound.

Middle ear

The middle ear consists of a small air-filled chamber that is located medial to the eardrum. Within this chamber are the three smallest bones in the body, known collectively as the ossicles which include the malleus, incus and stapes (sometimes referred to coloquially as the hammer, anvil and stirrup respectively). They aid in the transmission of the vibrations from the eardrum to the inner ear. While the middle ear may seem unnecessarily complex, the purpose of its unique construction is to overcome the impedance mismatch between air and water, by providing impedance matching.
Also located in the middle ear are the stapedius and tensor tympani muscles which protect the hearing mechanism through a stiffening reflex. The stapes transmits sound waves to the inner ear through the oval window, a flexible membrane separating the air-filled middle ear from the fluid-filled inner ear. The round window, another flexible membrane, allows for the smooth displacement of the inner ear fluid caused by the entering sound waves.

Inner ear

The inner ear consists of the cochlea, which is a spiral-shaped, fluid-filled tube. It is divided lengthwise by the organ of Corti, which is the main organ of mechanical to neural transduction. Inside the organ of Corti is the basilar membrane, a structure that vibrates when waves from the middle ear propagate through the cochlear fluid – endolymph. The basilar membrane istonotopic, so that each frequency has a characteristic place of resonance along it. Characteristic frequencies are high at the basal entrance to the cochlea, and low at the apex. Basilar membrane motion causes depolarization of the hair cells, specialized auditory receptors located within the organ of Corti. While the hair cells do not produce action potentials themselves, they release neurotransmitter at synapses with the fibers of the auditory nerve, which does produce action potentials. In this way, the patterns of oscillations on the basilar membrane are converted to spatiotemporal patterns of firings which transmit information about the sound to the brainstem.

How Our Ears Work

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Thursday, September 15, 2016

Elena´s Back

A few weeks ago, Elena had a health problem, she missed a week from school, we were really worried about her.
Right now, she´s fine and back, we are really thrilled to have her back.




We made a card to let her know we care and love her.








Wednesday, September 7, 2016

Mr. Davis´ III VIsit

Today, Mr. Leroy Davis III came to give us a talk, we are reviewing the parts of the body, muscles and bones.

Mr. Davis is a professional basketball player, so we thought it was a great idea to have him a speaker to know more about his profession.

His Biography.

He was born in Ohio, he´s 35 years old.
  He started playing basketball when he was 5. He´s been playing as a professional basketball player for 12 years.
He has played for 25 different teams around  USA, Mexico and South America.
His father was in the navy,so he had chance to live in different countries around the world.
It was a great pleasure to have him as a guest and learn more about his life and profession.

Here´s an animation video with the pictures we took of this amazing experience:

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Friday, September 2, 2016